I have already said, and I repeat, that I came to this summit in the hope that we will reach an agreement to open up more markets for industrial products, in the hope of securing a strong Russian aid programme, in the hope that we will be united in showing determination to restore the capacity of all our countries to create jobs and opportunities for our people. I believe that these objectives have been achieved and I look forward to the first G7 meeting in which I was able to participate. QUESTIONS AND RÉPONSES DEFICIT OECD countries could meet their Kyoto commitments by purchasing quotas from transition countries that are in surplus. In the absence of other commitments to reduce the overall quota surplus, such trade would not result in effective emission reductions:25 (see also the section on the Green Investment Scheme). UN Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon called on world leaders to agree on an agreement to curb global warming at the 69th session of the UN General Assembly on 23 September 2014 in New York. The next climate summit was held in Paris in 2015, the date of the Paris Agreement, which succeeded the Kyoto Protocol. A. No. She did what she wanted. She has given it a lot of thought, and I think I was frankly impressed and delighted with the response she received from people on the street, especially young women who are working, and students at university the other day. And I think it`s a real indication of the aspirations of young Japanese to see that everyone here has a chance to exploit their potential. I was really happy.
This summit also held new hopes for other peoples of the world, especially those involved in the democratic reforms in Russia, led by President Yeltsin, who joined us here. Emission limits do not include emissions from international aviation and shipping.  Although Belarus and Turkey are included in Schedule I of the agreement, they do not have emission targets since they were not parties to Schedule I at the time of the adoption of the protocol.  Kazakhstan has no objective, but has stated that it wishes to become a contracting party to Schedule I of the Convention.  “Many of us were surprised by Abe Davos` speech, without knowing what he meant, not about data management expertise,” said Masaki Inaba, one of the leaders of civil society 20 (C20) Japan, a group of NGOs that participated in the summit. “We had to quickly look at the problems associated with this late addition to the G20 agenda in Osaka.” Barker et al. (2007, p. 79) have evaluated the literature on cost estimates of the Kyoto Protocol.  Due to the United States` non-participation in the Kyoto Treaty, the cost estimates were significantly lower than the estimates of the previous IPCC Third Assessment Report. Without the participation of the United States and using the Kyoto flexible mechanisms fully, the cost was estimated to be less than 0.05% of Schedule B GDP. This is compared to previous estimates of 0.1 to 1.1%. Without the use of flexible mechanisms, costs were estimated to be less than 0.1% without U.S.
participation. This is compared to previous estimates of 0.2 to 2%. These cost estimates were considered to be based on a great deal of evidence and convergence in the literature. The first commitment period of the protocol began in 2008 and ended in 2012. The 36 countries that fully participated in the first commitment period complied with the protocol. However, nine countries have had to resort to flexibility mechanisms by funding emission reductions in other countries, with their national emissions slightly above their targets. The 2007-08 financial crisis contributed to the reduction of emissions. The largest emission reductions were observed in the former Eastern Bloc countries because the dissolution of the Soviet Union reduced its emissions in the early 1990s.
 Although the 36 developed countries reduced their emissions, global emissions increased by 32% between 1990 and 2010.  The EU and its member states ratified the protocol in May 2002.  Of these two conditions, the “55 parties